All references listed here are publicly available, either by download or by request from your library. Most publications more than five years old are accessible through the Jstor web service in electronic form (usually pdf); Jstor is accessible through many public libraries and school systems. Copies of shorter publications (not books) can often be obtained by email request to the author. Other sources for publications can often be found on the Google Scholar web site.

There is no significance to the order of listing of references.

Reference List

[1]  Raymond D Watts, Roger W Compton, John H McCammon, Carl L Rich, Stewart M Wright, Tom Owens, and Douglas S Ouren. 2007. Roadless Space of the Conterminous United States. Science, 316: 736-738.

There is a direct way to view or obtain this paper online ( cannot post this publication itself, owing to copyright restrictions). Point your browser to the journal Science (this link goes directly to the paper). You will have to register on the Science web site (a free registration) and log in. Once logged in, you will be able to view or download the paper.

[2] Erica Gies. 2009. Conservation: an investment that pays—the economic benefits of parks and open space. The Trust for Public Lands. San Francisco. 36 p. [direct link to publication]

[3] Syphard, A.D., Radeloff, V.C., Keeley, J.E., Hawbaker, T.J., Clayton, M.K., Stewart, S.I. and Hammer, R.B. 2007. Human influence on California fire regimes. Ecological applications, 17: 1388-1402.

[4] Forman, Richard T.T. and 13 others. 2003. Road Ecology: Science and Solutions. Island Press. Washington, DC. 481 p.

[5] Anderson, S.T. and West, S.E., 2006. Open space, residential property values, and spatial context. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 36: 773-789.

[6] Geoghegan, Jacqueline. 2002. The value of open spaces in residential land use. Land Use Policy, 19: 91–98.

[7] Costanza, Robert, and seven others. 2014. Changes in the global value of ecosystem services. Global Environmental Change, 26: 152-158.

[8] Trombulak, Stephen C., and Frissell, Christopher A. 2000. Review of ecological effects of roads on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Conservation Biology, 14: 18-30.

[9] Forman, R. T. T. and Deblinger, R. D. 2000. The Ecological Road-Effect Zone of a Massachusetts (U.S.A.) Suburban Highway. Conservation Biology, 14: 36–46.

[10] Forman, R.T.T. 2000. Estimate of the area affected ecologically by the road system in the United States. Conservation biology, 14: 31-35.

[11] Havlick, David. 2002. No Place Distant. Island Press. Washington, DC., 253 p.

[12] Fahrig, L., and T. Rytwinski. 2009. Effects of roads on animal abundance: an empirical review and synthesis. Ecology and Society 14(1): 21. [online] URL:

[13] Coffin, A. 2007. From roadkill to road ecology: A review of the ecological effects of roads. Journal of Transport Geography  15: 396–406.